The ocean contains a wealth of biodiversity, and most of this diversity lives in the sunlit area called the euphotic zone (see Distribution of Life, page 45, for more information).
Where is biodiversity mostly found?
Species diversity is greatest in the tropics, particularly in tropical forests and coral reefs. The Amazon basin in South America has the largest area of tropical forests. The southwestern Pacific has the greatest diver- sity of coral reef species.
Does the ocean have the most biodiversity?
The world’s oceans contain somewhere between 500,000 and 10 million marine species. … Much of the biodiversity in the ocean, particularly in the deep sea and in the microbial ocean, is unknown, and up to 2,000 new species are described per year.
What is biodiversity in the ocean?
Marine biodiversity is an aggregation of highly inter-connected ecosystem components or features, encompassing all levels of biological organization from genes, species, populations to ecosystems, with the diversity of each level having structural and functional attributes (Table 1).
Why is the most biodiversity found near the equator?
There might be more biodiversity near the equator because it’s warmer year round, allowing organisms to continue growing. Locations away from the equator will have cold winters that will slow growth for microorganisms, plants and animals.
Which ecosystem has the most biodiversity?
Coral reefs are believed by many to have the highest biodiversity of any ecosystem on the planet—even more than a tropical rainforest. Occupying less than one percent of the ocean floor, coral reefs are home to more than 25% of all marine life.
How much of biodiversity is in the ocean?
Oceans cover 70% of our planet and represent over 95% of the biosphere.
Why biodiversity is important in the ocean?
Healthy marine ecosystems are important for society since they provide services including food security, feed for livestock , raw materials for medicines, building materials from coral rock and sand, and natural defenses against hazards such as coastal erosion and inundation. …
How much of the Earth’s biodiversity is in the ocean?
Assessment of this pattern for all kingdoms of life on Earth predicts ∼8.7 million (±1.3 million SE) species globally, of which ∼2.2 million (±0.18 million SE) are marine. Our results suggest that some 86% of the species on Earth, and 91% in the ocean, still await description.
Is there more biodiversity on Earth near the equator or pole?
Species diversity is higher at the equator than at the poles. In biological terms, this is referred to as the latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), in which the number of species increases from the poles to the Equator. This ranks among the broadest and most notable biodiversity patterns on Earth.
Where do most species exist on the planet?
The question has held for the two decades since, even as humans have explored more and more of the deep ocean. Scientists now estimate that 80 percent of Earth’s species live on land, 15 percent in the ocean, and the remaining 5 percent in freshwater.
What countries are on equator?
The Equator passes through 13 countries: Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Sao Tome & Principe, Gabon, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Somalia, Maldives, Indonesia and Kiribati. At least half of these countries rank among the poorest in the world.